Any trip to the supermarket or watching TV ads in the last week or so should have left you with one clear 而且 resounding message – Valentine’s Day is just around the corner. 如果你能看到心脏之外的东西, 丘比特画像, 泰迪熊, 巧克力, 等等, 你会感激这个让新黄金城集团真爱的机会, 或者新黄金城集团现在的爱, or our hoped-to-be loves how we feel about them is not just big business, 而是新黄金城集团社会和生活的重要组成部分.
这是为什么呢? 为什么一年中的这一天如此特别? Well I’m going to take an evolutionary approach to explain this phenomenon in this blog, 并强调为什么它是基于新黄金城集团天性中更深层的一面.
To start with, a good question to ask is do other species have something similar? 现在, I don’t mean do they have a special day where they send each other cards 而且 crack open a nice bottle of wine, 但新黄金城集团能从其他动物身上了解情人节吗? 这里有两个例子:
Bowerbirds, found in Papua New Guinea 而且 Australia, are a great place to start. 雄性园丁鸟用小树枝建造了巨大而奇妙的房子, 叶子, berries 而且 any other materials they can find (including plastic straws from nearby fast food restaurants), very carefully making sure that they are beautifully decorated 而且 impressive. 然后他们坐在他们旁边，他们等待着. Female bowerbirds will then pass by each house 而且 inspecting each one, 如果他们喜欢他们所看到的, 它们会和建造它的鸟交配.
Peacocks have very recognisable 而且 fabulously large 而且 colourful tails that are in fact very difficult 而且 dangerous to own. 这是因为它们需要大量的能量来生长和维持, 由于它们的体型和重量，飞行和移动都很困难, 这意味着主人更有可能被捕食者抓住. 那么，如果这对他们的生存不利，他们为什么要这样做呢? 答案是，因为它有利于繁殖, 因为雌孔雀会被尾巴更大的孔雀吸引, simply because it shows off that the owner of that tail has managed to survive despite the large tail, 这就意味着它们是高质量的标本!
这两个例子都涉及到所谓的昂贵信号, 自然界中哪些信号的产生成本较高, 这样就能显示出信号员是如何负担得起费用的. So, the bowerbird is paying a big cost in terms of effort 而且 time 而且 energy to build their magnificent houses, 而且 the peacocks is paying a big cost in terms of physically growing their elaborate tails. 回到人类和他们的情人节, we can see other costly signals being spent such as expensive engagement rings (with a diamond that should, 作为一个粗略的指南, 相当于一个月的工资!)、奢华的晚餐或浪漫的旅行. 这些都显示了成本有多高, 在金钱方面, 为了给另一半留下好印象，新黄金城集团准备好了付钱, 还有一些珠宝, restaurants 而且 hotel owners know only too well 而且 are happy to help with!
但成本并不总是钱, so gifts that are difficult to produce but inexpensive financially (such as writing a romantic poem or song) can also show a large cost being spent. 这也是相对的, so what might not be a cost for some people will be for others 而且 work just as well, so a simple card 而且 modest box of 巧克力 may be costly to some people 而且 as a result will have the same desired effect. 记住，在情人节，心意才是最重要的!
So, Valentine’s Day traditions have clear similarities with mating in other animal species, 这表明它们在新黄金城集团的心理中根深蒂固得多. But one unavoidable fact about mating displays in the animal kingdom that needs to be noted is that in virtually every single case it is the male of the species who is doing the displaying, 雌性在做选择. 为什么会这样，人类也一样吗?
To answer that first question, we need to think about looking after our offspring. 在哺乳动物中, 母亲们在照顾孩子上投入更多, as they not only grow them over a long period time 而且 give birth to them, 他们出生后也会提供大量的照顾, 在它们小的时候，所有的食物都是以奶的形式存在的. As a result of the fact that females invest far more in being a parent than males do, they need to make sure that this investment is wisely placed on good quality offspring. This is why females are overwhelmingly the ‘choosier’ sex in nature (as Charles Darwin realised) as they have more to lose than males. Males on the other h而且 invest much less (而且 in some species hardly anything at all), 所以不必挑三拣四, 他们只需要确保自己被选中. This is why it is the male Bowers who build big houses 而且 peacocks who grow long tails, 因为它们需要给挑剔的雌性留下好印象.
很明显，人类的情况与此类似, as there is also a difference in the amount of investment in children from mothers 而且 fathers. 这反映在情人节的行为上, 因为大部分买订婚戒指的都是男人, 为昂贵的晚餐买单, 浪漫的旅行, 写浪漫的歌曲和诗歌, 法庭和总体上试图用他们昂贵的展示给女性留下深刻印象.
但也不总是这样. 女性也会试图给别人留下深刻印象，并为此付出代价, 男性在选择恋爱对象时当然是很挑剔的. 所以这是否表明新黄金城集团已经克服了新黄金城集团的生物起源? 不完全是这样. 在养育子女方面，人类是一个奇怪的物种, as fathers invest a lot more in our species than others due to the fact that human babies require a lot (A LOT!)的照顾和支持，是由父母双方提供的. This means men too need to be choosy when it comes to deciding where to put this investment, 而且 therefore gifts 而且 romantic gestures can work just as well for men as it can women.
整体, I think that looking at other species 而且 evolutionary explanations around mating behaviour can really help us underst而且 Valentine’s Day, but as with all cases when it comes to human nature we also need to look at what makes us unique. And that’s without even starting to look at how years of cultural influences 而且 traditions have further shaped it. 不管怎样，好好享受吧!
Daniel Farrelly博士 是?的高级讲师 心理学学士学位 包括进化和人类行为模块. Daniel's main interests are main interests are in the empirical 而且 theoretical application of evolutionary theory to explain human behaviour 而且 psychological processes.
All views expressed in this blog are the Academic’s own 而且 do not represent the views, policies or opinions of the 新黄金城集团 or any of its partners.